Wednesday, December 5, 2012
Making way for discharge and recovery on US Corporate public debt due the Principals and Sureties of THE UNITED STATES providing as “public policy” for the discharge of “every obligation”, “including every obligation OF and TO THE UNITED STATES”, “dollar for dollar”, allowing those backing the US financial reorganization to recover on it by discharging an obligation they owed TO THE UNITED STATES or its sub-corporate entities, against that same amount of obligation OF THE UNITED STATES owed to them (set off); thus providing the remedy for the discharge and orderly recovery of equity interest on US Corporate public debt due the Sureties, Principals, and Holders of THE UNITED STATES, discharging that portion of the public debt without expansion of credit, debt or obligation on THE UNITED STATES or these its prime-creditors it was intended to satisfy equitable remedy to, but gaining for each bearer of such note, discharge of obligation equivalent in value ‘dollar for dollar’ to any and all “lawful money of the United States”(Credit).
This is a few of the more important terms, there are many others within this section.
31 cfr § 103.11 Meaning of terms.
PART 103: FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS
Subpart A: Definitions
When used in this part and in forms prescribed under this part, where not otherwise distinctly expressed or manifestly incompatible with the intent thereof, terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this section.
(a) Accept. A receiving financial institution, other than the recipient's financial institution, accepts a transmittal order by executing the transmittal order. A recipient's financial institution accepts a transmittal order by paying the recipient, by notifying the recipient of the receipt of the order or by otherwise becoming obligated to carry out the order.
(b) Bank. Each agent, agency, branch or office within the United States of any person doing business in one or more of the capacities listed below:
(1) A commercial bank or trust company organized under the laws of any State or of the United States;
(2) A private bank;
(3) A savings and loan association or a building and loan association organized under the laws of any State or of the United States;
(4) An insured institution as defined in section 401 of the National Housing Act;
(5) A savings bank, industrial bank or other thrift institution;
(6) A credit union organized under the law of any State or of the United States;
(7) Any other organization (except a money services business) chartered under the banking laws of any state and subject to the supervision of the bank supervisory authorities of a State;
(8) A bank organized under foreign law;
(9) Any national banking association or corporation acting under the provisions of section 25(a) of the Act of Dec. 23, 1913, as added by the Act of Dec. 24, 1919, ch. 18, 41 Stat. 378, as amended (12 U.S.C. 611-32).
(d) Beneficiary. The person to be paid by the beneficiary's bank.
(h) Currency. The coin and paper money of the United States or of any other country that is designated as legal tender and that circulates and is customarily used and accepted as a medium of exchange in the country of issuance. Currency includes U.S. silver certificates, U.S. notes and Federal Reserve notes. Currency also includes official foreign bank notes that are customarily used and accepted as a medium of exchange in a foreign country.
(k) Domestic. When used herein, refers to the doing of business within the United States, and limits the applicability of the provision where it appears to the performance by such institutions or agencies of functions within the United States.
(n) Financial institution. Each agent, agency, branch, or office within the United States of any person doing business, whether or not on a regular basis or as an organized business concern, in one or more of the capacities listed below:
(1) A bank (except bank credit card systems);
(7) A person subject to supervision by any state or federal bank supervisory authority.
(u) Monetary instruments.
(1) Monetary instruments include:
(ii) Traveler's checks in any form;
(iii) All negotiable instruments (including personal checks, business checks, official bank checks, cashier's checks, third-party checks, promissory notes (as that term is defined in the Uniform Commercial Code), and money orders, that are either in bearer form, endorsed without restriction, made out to a fictitious payee (for the purposes of ? 103.23), or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery;
(iv) Incomplete instruments (including personal checks, business checks, official bank checks, cashier's checks, third-party checks, promissory notes (as that term is defined in the Uniform Commercial Code), and money orders) signed but with the payee's name omitted; and
(v) Securities or stock in bearer form or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery.
(2) Monetary instruments do not include warehouse receipts or bills of lading.
(e) Payment order. An instruction of a sender to a receiving bank, transmitted orally, electronically, or in writing, to pay, or to cause another bank or foreign bank to pay, a fixed or determinable amount of money to a beneficiary if: (1) The instruction does not state a condition to payment to the beneficiary other than time of payment; (2) The receiving bank is to be reimbursed by debiting an account of, or otherwise receiving payment from, the sender; and (3) The instruction is transmitted by the sender directly to the receiving bank or to an agent, funds transfer system, or communication system for transmittal to the receiving bank.
(z) Person. An individual, a corporation, a partnership, a trust or estate, a joint stock company, an association, a syndicate, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization or group, an Indian Tribe (as that term is defined in the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act), and all entities cognizable as legal personalities.
Monday, November 5, 2012
1933 March 9, a bank emergency [bankruptcy] was declared by President Roosevelt because of the insolvency of the United States. Executive Order 6073, 6102, 6111, 6260; Senate Report 93-549, pgs. 187 & 594, 1973.
1933 March 9,“The new money (paper promissory notes) is issued to the banks in return for Government Obligation Debts, bills of exchange, drafts, notes, trade acceptances, and banker’s acceptances. The new money will be worth 100 cents on the dollar, because it is backed by the credit of the nation. It will represent a mortgage on all the homes and other property of all the people in the Nation.” Senate Document No. 43, 73rd Congressional Record, 1st Session.
Executive Order 6102, gold was transferred from U. S. Citizens to the United States, 1933 May 1.
Congressman, Louis T. McFadden brought formal charges (Congressional Record May 23, 1933 page 4055-4058) against the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Bank system, The Comptroller of the Currency and the Secretary of United States Treasury for numerous criminal acts, including but not limited to, conspiracy, fraud, unlawful conversion and treason. The petition for Articles of Impeachment was thereafter referred to the Judiciary Committee and has yet to be acted on.
1933 June 5, to mitigate McFadden's charges (and prevent being hung for treason), Congress passed House Joint Resolution 192 to provide U. S. Citizens the right to set off all Government Obligated Debts as the consideration (something bargained for i.e., an exchange) for the transfer (theft) of all the gold and property.
HJR192 CLAUSE, JUNE 5, 1933 73rd Cong., 1st Sess.
Joint resolution to assure uniform value to the coins and currencies of the United States.
Whereas the holding of or dealing in gold affect the public interest, and therefore subject to proper regulation and restriction; and
Whereas the existing emergency has disclosed that provisions of obligations which purport to give the obligee a right to require payment in gold or a particular kind of coin or currency of the United States, or in an amount of money of the United States measured thereby, obstruct the power of the Congress to regulate the value of money of the United States, and are inconsistent with the declared policy of the Congress to maintain at all times the equal power of every dollar, coined or issued by the United States, in the markets and in the payment of debts.
Now, therefore, be it
Now, therefore, be it
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That:
every provision contained in or made with respect to any obligation which purports to give the obligee a right to require payment in gold or a particular kind of coin or currency, or in an amount in money of the United States measured thereby, is declared to be against public policy; and no such provision shall be contained in or made with respect to any obligation hereafter incurred.
Every obligation, heretofore or hereafter incurred, whether or not any such provisions is contained therein or made with respect thereto, shall be discharged upon payment, dollar for dollar, in any such coin or currency which at the time of payment is legal tender for public and private debts.
Any such provision contained in any law authorizing obligations to be issued by or under authority of the United States, is hereby repealed, but the repeal of any such provision shall not invalidate any other provision or authority contained in such law.
As used in this resolution, the term “obligation” means an obligation (including every obligation of and to the United States, excepting currency) payable in money of the United States; and the term “coin or currency” means coin or currency of the United States, including Federal Reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal Reserve banks and national banking associations. SEC. 2. The last sentence of paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of § 43 of the Act entitled “An Act to relieve the existing national economic emergency by increasing agricultural purchasing power, to raise revenue for extraordinary expenses incurred by reason of such emergency, to provide emergency relief with respect to agricultural indebtedness, to provide for the orderly liquidation of joint-stock land banks, and for other purposes”, approved May 12, 1933, is amended to read as follows:
“All coins and currencies of the United States (including Federal Reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal Reserve banks and national banking associations) heretofore or hereafter coined or issued, shall be legal tender for all debts, for public and private, public charges, taxes, duties, and dues, except that gold coins, when below the standard weight and limit of tolerance provided by law for the single piece, shall be legal tender only at valuation in proportion to their actual weight.” Approved June 5, 1933, 4:30 p.m.
Title 12.221 Definitions – “The terms ‘national bank’ and ‘national banking association’....shall be held to be synonymous and interchangeable.”
Federal Reserve Notes can only “discharge” (hand it off to another) a debt. A debt, to be extinguished, must be “paid” with value or substance (i.e. gold, silver, barter or a commodity. My actual labor is the equivalent of gold and silver.). For this reason HJR-192 (1933), which established the “public policy” of our current monetary system, repeatedly uses the technical term of “discharge” in conjunction with “payment” in laying out public policy for the new system.
Now it is public policy “Public Law 73-10” that paying in gold or silver is no longer an option. If we are not using lawful money “gold or silver”, then it has to be Circulating notes in order to exchange them for FRN’s. Circulating notes are the Titles, Birth Certificates, Death Certificates, Marriage License, Social Security cards, Drivers License, Voters Registration, and many other “circulating papers” issued by the government. This was done as an emergency act of congress. This HJR 192 is not an Amendment: And neither resolutions, nor statutes can override the Constitution mandates. However, this would apply only to the Republican form of Government, The United States of America, not the Democracy, UNITED STATES.
Either way, congress has their limitations, Caha v. United States, 152 U.S. 211, 215, 14 S.Ct. 513 “The laws of Congress do not extend into the territorial limits of the states, but have force ONLY in the District of Columbia, and other places that are WITHIN the EXCLUSIVE jurisdiction of the national government,”
Thus, they had no authority, or did they? They created subdivisions of the US CORPORATION, called STATES i.e. OREGON, TEXAS, MAIN, FLORIDA, and all the others. Zip Codes indicate DC (District of Columbia) subdivision, called STATES. By fraud, deception, and misdirection, they have deprived us of lawful money. However, that is not all they did.
1950 Congress declared “bankruptcy and reorganization”. Secretary of Treasury appointed receiver in the bankruptcy. Reorganization Plan, No. 26, 5 U.S.C.A. 903; Public Law 94-564; Legislative History, Pg. 5967.
1973 “Since March 9th, 1933, the United States has been in a state of declared national emergency (bankruptcy)...” Senate Resolution 9, 93d. Congress, 1st. Session, Foreward.
1977 Oct. 28th, the United States as a “Corporator” and “State” declared insolvency. State banks and most other banks were put under control of the “Governor” (Secretary of the U. S. Treasury) of the “Fund” (I.M.F.). 26 IRC 165 (g)(1); U.C.C. 1-201(23), C.R.S. 39-22-103.5, Westfall vs. Braley, 10 Ohio 188, 75 Am. Dec. 509, Adams vs. Richardson, 337 S.W. 2d. 911; Ward vs. Smith, 7 Wall 447.
1993 March 17th, United States Congressional Record, Vol. 33, page H-1303. Speaker-Rep. James Traficant, Jr. (Ohio) addressing the House: “Mr. Speaker, we are here now in chapter 11. Members of Congress are official trustees presiding over the greatest reorganization of any Bankrupt entity in world history, the U. S. Government. It is an established fact that the United States Federal Government has been dissolved by the Emergency Banking Act, March 9, 1933, 48 Stat. 1, Public Law 89-719; declared by President Roosevelt, being bankrupt and insolvent. H.J.R. 192, 73rd Congress m session June 5, 1933 – Joint Resolution To Suspend The Gold Standard and Abrogate The Gold Clause dissolved the Sovereign Authority of the United States and the official capacities of all United States Governmental Offices, Officers, and Departments and is further evidence that the United States Federal Government exists today in name only.”
Thursday, September 13, 2012
This government cannot be following the LON, and this government is nothing more then a corporate bully, as they allow the Federal Reserve to counterfeit money of another nation (America). LON Book 1 Chapter X § 108: “How one nation may injure another in the article of coin: From the principles just laid down, it is easy to conclude, that if one nation counterfeits the money of another, or if she allows and protects false-coiners who presume to do it, she does that nation an injury. However, commonly criminals of this class find no protection anywhere — all princes being equally interested in exterminating them”.
Then again, the Federal Reserve System is not a country, is not a member of any country, and yet it still robs the people, by creating false-coins. They are not a state, as state is also a designation for a country or land, “a man’s home is his castle”, and “‘sovereign’ is a landowner”. The constitution clearly reflects this: “No state shall make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in payment of debts”. Therefore, here, in the USA, we need not the Federal Reserve, as long as the people create Tender out of Gold, or Silver, when paying debts owed to the Government, as that is the only form to pay debts the government can accept. (Definition: Accept: To receive with approval or satisfaction: to receive with intent. Black’s Law Dictionary 4th)
We, the people, as individuals, are not a country, nor could we be with a common currency. Even if we were to coin our own money, as each of us, the people, are sovereign. We could create bonds; this would be circulating foreign commercial paper. Why is this important to understand? Besides not having lawful money (gold or silver), it infringes on our right to contract, and pay debts to the government, and government created entities (everything that exists on paper). If our contracts use the symbol of “$”, or the word “pay” in the contracts, or anything that reflects “dollars” to the government, then it reflects “gold or silver currency” for the debt, lawful money, reflecting the “gold and silver clause” in the constitution. If you use any Thing, other then gold or silver to pay a debt in any connection to the government created accounts, or numbers, then contractually, it is invalid. You are in dishonor; breach of contract; lied; committed fraud; support rebellion; or simply, you are an enemy of the Republic.
Is FRNs legal tender? Yes. Nevertheless, some would have an opposing point of view. So let us look at the opposing view first. This is the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 under § 18 of the Federal Reserve Act (38 Stat., 268, 269) the various Federal reserve banks could issue circulating notes of the same tenor and under nearly identical terms and conditions as the circulating notes of the national banks.
This is an example a Federal Reserve Bank Note. A “National Currency” (note). Issued pursuant § 18 of the Federal Reserve Act. It states on the top, “National Currency” signed by the Controller and Governor, I assume of the Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis. It also states will “PAY” to the Bearer on Demand. Now we have Federal Reserve Notes that do not have the same verbiage but claims to be legal tender. Can a note be legal tender? If I give you a note, also known as a promissory note, is it legal tender? What if I were to write on the note, good for all debts public and private? The Federal Reserve Bank issues the above, and it was lawful money, now we have legal tender issued by the Federal Reserve System. Where is this authorized? I cannot find it. If you find it, share it.
In 1982 Congress re-codified Title 31, Money and Finance by way of a statute known as P.L. 97-258, 96 Stat. 877. In that statute the legal tender, status of United States coins and currencies was re-assigned, at § 5103. Legal Tender “United States coins and currency (including Federal reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal reserve banks and national banks) are legal tender for all debts. Where is the Federal Reserve System? Foreign gold or silver coins are not legal tender for debts.” Why is any gold not legal tender? Because; it is lawful money. Lawful money, credit instruments, cannot co-mingle with debt instruments, Federal Reserve Notes. Would you put accounts receivable and accounts payable in the same place?
As the Federal Reserve System is not a part of the government and is a private corporation, foreign gold and silver would include, United States Silver and Gold coins and all that is built upon it. This also means that FRNs are not US Currency, as this statute includes FRNs, as a part of the legal tender, thus indicating they are different species. Now foreign coins are not legal tender for debts but they could be lawful money, if it is made of, or backed by gold or silver. It does not mean that lawful foreign coins cannot be used for debts, it just kind of puts us in a situation we can only use FRNs (foreign tender), for debts. You have a cloud over the title of everything you purchase with FRN’s, because you did not “pay” for it. Recall US Constitution, Article 1 §10: “No State shall.... pass any.... Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts”. Contracts demand the use of “$”, US Currency, or “pay”; that is to say, gold and/or silver. So the question, is there a law that changed that? Where did the law come from? What changed that requirement? Is it legal? We have seen the US Constitution claims debts must be “paid” in gold or silver, for all debts. No statute can abrogate the Constitutional requirement of the use of gold and silver to pay debts, in the republican form of government. This changed in 1933 in congress: an act of rebellion against these United States of America. However, this is not so in the Democracy. This is a bankrupt corporation impersonating a government, in an act of rebellion and in agreement with the 14th amendment. Why Bankrupt? The Corporate Democracy, US, of which has no credit instruments, (Gold and/or Silver) just debt instruments. If all I have are debts and cannot pay them, what actions would I take other than bankruptcy?
Yet, in all of this it also claims “and circulating notes”, below in HJR 192. Regardless, it is not lawful currency; it might be legal tender. States can coin their own money, at any time. People can also, however, do not call them a dollar. Call it 999.999% silver, one ounce, but never a dollar. Dollar is a US Term and value. You cannot give it a name similar to any country. Name it your last name- sorry, should be your- family name with Estate: Doe Estate, John occupant of the executor office, Seattle, Washington, 99.9 % pure silver, if it in fact is. You created it, why can you not put your seal on it?
Now let us examine the other side of the coin. A Federal Reserve note is both a note and a dollar. It is a note in the sense that it represents a promise by the United States to pay the stated face amount of the instrument to the bearer on demand in lawful money. It is a dollar in the sense that the value of the note is stated in units of one dollar. The statutory authority for the creation and issuance of Federal Reserve notes is provided by § 16 of the Federal Reserve Act (see 12 O.S.C. S 411). That section provides that Federal Reserve notes, to be issued at the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, shall be obligations of the United States redeemable in “lawful money” on demand at the Treasury Department in Washington, D.C. or at any Federal Reserve Bank. In this connection, it should be noted that Federal Reserve notes are themselves lawful money. Although not defined by statute, the term “lawful money” is generally regarded as meaning any medium of exchange that freely circulates from hand to hand as money under sanction of law. The decisions of the courts indicate that lawful money includes the classes of money that are declared by the laws of the United States to be legal tender. Since title 31 § 392 provides that all coins and currencies of the United States, including Federal Reserve notes, regardless of when coined or issued, are legal tender for all debts, a Federal Reserve note is legal tender.
Tuesday, June 12, 2012
Further more, all power is in the people. The Constitution for the United States of America Amendment IX: “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” Amendment X: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” We have no King. Declaration of Independence: “We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness – That to ensure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it-”. We determine the value of everything, we allow public servants to set a standards, especially when dealing with foreign countries.
In this country, United States of America, we, the people, are Sovereigns:
· “sovereignty itself remains with the people, by whom and for whom all government exists and acts” Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 US 356, 370
· Will v. Michigan Dept. of State Police, 491 US 58 “The people of the state, as the successors of its former sovereign, are entitled to all the rights which formerly belonged to the king by his own prerogative.”
· Lansing v. Smith, 4 Wendell 9, (NY) “It will be admitted on all hands that with the exception of the powers granted to the states and the federal government through the Constitutions, the people of the several states are unconditionally sovereign within their respective states.” 16 How416, 14 L.Ed 997.
One is free to dishonor the courts decisions or deny their existence, then never say anything about Romans 13:1 or 13:7. If we are to Honor our government then we must Honor the courts decisions, then we must realize, in the Republic United States of America, we, the people, should they choose, are, in fact, Sovereign. In this country, we, the people, are Caesar. In the Democracy, we are US Citizens. What would happen if people became aware they are sovereign? What would the people do if they studied the LON? Is this why we are not being taught the LON? People in this country are considered Sovereigns “without subjects” and we, the people, have the right to coin money. Except, if we do, as others have, they will often be arrested. However, this is because they call it a dollar, a term reserved to the Republic States of the Union. Therefore, we should call it 1 troy ounce, .99999% pure, or some designation such as that and therefore used for exchanges.
Tuesday, May 8, 2012
Oaths of office:
v The Constitution for the United States of America;
o Article 6 § 1 Clause 3 “The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution;.” I ask, have they done so?
o Article 2 §1 Clause 8 “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
v Title 5
o § 3331. Oath of office An individual, except the President, elected or appointed to an office of honor or profit in the civil service or uniformed services, shall take the following oath: “I, AB, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.”
o Judges have the Title 5 oath of office,
o Another one for Judges found in Title 28, § 453 says –Each justice or judge of the United States shall take the following oath or affirmation before performing the duties of his office: “I, [NAME], do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and do equal right to the poor and to the rich, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent upon me as [OFFICER] under the Constitution and laws of the United States. So help me God.”
v Government officials are to swears these oaths, people are not. Their duties include:
o Protecting God given Rights of the people,
o Serving the people.
o Establishing Freedom.
o “to lie”.
Wednesday, March 28, 2012
The definition of a coin is: “coin: n: 1. A metal disc or piece used as money. 2. (Economics, Accounting & Finance / Currencies) metal currency, as opposed to securities, paper currency, etc. Related adj nummary”. The coin is an important concept, that all nations that follow, and obey. The “Common Law” Of Nations was established before Christ, started as “Biblical” law, it has been updated over the centuries, but the concepts have remained the same. Let us continue, LON Book 1 Chapter X § 106: “Duty of the nation or prince with respect to the coin: The impression on the coin becoming the seal of its standard and weight, a moment's reflection will convince us that the coinage of money ought not to be left indiscriminately free to every individual; for, by that means, frauds would become too common — the coin would soon lose the public confidence; and this would destroy a most useful institution. Hence money is coined by the authority and in the name of the state or prince, who are its surety; they ought, therefore, to have a quantity of it coined sufficient to answer the necessities of the country, and to take care that it be good, that is to say, that its intrinsic value bear a just proportion to its extrinsic or numeracy value.
It is true, that, in a pressing necessity, the state would have a right to order the citizens to receive the coin at a price superior to its real value; but as foreigners will not receive it at that price, the nations gains nothing by this proceeding; it is only a temporary palliative for the evil, without effecting a radical cure. This excess of value, added in an arbitrary manner to the coin, is a real debt which the sovereign contracts with individuals: and, in strict justice, this crisis of affairs being over, that money ought to be called in at the expense of the state, and paid for in other specie, according to the natural standard: otherwise, this kind of burden, laid on in the hour of necessity, would fall solely on those who received this arbitrary money in payment, which would be unjust. Besides, experience has shown that such a resource is destructive to trade, by destroying the confidence both of foreigners and citizens — raising in proportion the price of every thing — and inducing every one to lock up or send abroad the good old specie; whereby a temporary stop is put to the circulation of money. So that it is the duty of every nation and of every sovereign to abstain, as much as possible, from so dangerous an experiment, and rather to have recourse to extraordinary taxes and contributions to support the pressing exigencies of the state”.
Concerning LON Book 1 Chapter X § 106, Let us look at definitions:
· “In the name of” n: “behalf of”; “on the part of”; “by authority”; as, it was done in the name of the people; - often used in invocation, swearing, praying, and the like. In the represented or assumed character of.
· prince: n; 1. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) (In Britain) a son of the sovereign or of one of the sovereign's sons
· 2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) a non-reigning male member of a sovereign family
· 3. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) the monarch of a small territory, such as Monaco, usually called a principality, that was at some time subordinate to an emperor or king
· 4. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) any sovereign; monarch
· 5. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) a nobleman in various countries, such as Italy and Germany
· 6. An outstanding member of a specified group a merchant prince
· 7. US and Canadian informal a generous and charming man
[Via Old French from Latin princeps first man, ruler, or chief]
So what does it mean when some private business (FEDERAL RESERVE) creates a coin for the use of the people within a corporation (UNITED STATES: Democracy. Being different then the Republic: United States of America)? Obviously, UNITED STATES has to be a corporation, it cannot be a nation, as it does not have gold, or silver, coins: thus destroying the most useful institution, and the republic. Would this make the Federal Reserve System, who created FRNs, an act of rebellion? Yes. Article 1 § 8 ¶ 6 “To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;” In addition, it includes all who participate in the use of these manufactured forgeries. Except, for one thing, do we, the people, have a choice? Do ‘they’ even inform us? If we are not informed or do not understand, we can have no choice! Can the average man, or woman, be committing a willful act of treason? I think not! There lies the difference, the banks, and our government, have a choice. On the other hand, we, the people, do not have a choice. Besides, we, the people, can use whatever we want; the government is bound by certain restrictions. The LON is clear in the injury it is knowingly causing by making false-coins. LON Book 1 Chapter X§ 107: “Their rights in this respect: Since the state is surely for the goodness of the money and its currency, the public authority alone has the right of coining it. Those who counterfeit it, violate the rights of the sovereign, whether they make it of the same standard and value or not. These are called false-coiners, and their crime is justly considered as one of the most heinous nature. For if they coin base money, they rob both the public and the prince; and if they coin good, they usurp the prerogative of the sovereign. They will never be inclined to coin good money unless there be a profit on the coinage: and in this case they rob the state of a profit, which exclusively belongs to it. In both cases, they do an injury to the sovereign; for the public faith being surety for the money, the sovereign alone has a right to have it coined. For this reason the right of coining is placed among the prerogatives of majesty, and Bodinus relates, 2 That Sigismund Augustus, king of Poland, having granted this privilege to the duke of Prussia, in the year 1543, the states of the country passed a decree in which it was asserted that the king could not grant that privilege, it being inseparable from the crown. The same author observes, that, although many lords and bishops of France had formerly the privilege of coining money, it was still considered as coined by the king's authority: and the kings of France at last withdrew all those privileges, on account of their being often abused”.